Concrete

Concrete is widely used in domestic, commercial, recreational, rural and educational construction.Communities around the world rely on concrete as a safe, strong and simple building material.  It is used in all types of construction; from domestic work to multi-storey office blocks and shopping complexes. Despite the common usage of concrete, …

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Foundation

Every structure consists of two parts. (1) Foundation and (2) Super structure. The lowest artificially prepared parts of the structure which are in direct contact with the ground and which transmit the loads of the structure to the ground are known as Foundation or Substructure. The solid ground on which the foundation rest …

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Column Design

The last part of the design that was completed was the determination of the reinforcement for the columns. The columns are the most critical part of the building because the failure of a column, especially a column lower in the building, could have devastating ramifications. The failure of a column could …

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T-beam Design for Shear

Next in the design process was the determination of the shear reinforcement. Without shear reinforcement the beam would have a catastrophic failure due to shear-web and flexure-shear cracks. These cracks would form due to the shear forces in the beam and cause equivalent tension stresses that would cause failure in …

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T-beam Design for Flexure

The T-beams were then designed for the flexural forces they would experience. This design comprised of the determination and selection of the adequate amount of steel necessary in each of the critical T-beam sections. The steel reinforcement is necessary in the portions of the Tbeam that are in tension because …

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Post Tensioning

The prestress force is applied in this case by jacking steel tendons against an alreadycastconcrete member. Nearly all in situ prestressing is carried out using this method. The tendons are threaded through ducts cast into the concrete, or in some cases passoutside the concrete section. Once the tendons have been …

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CONTROL NETWORKS ( Linear survey )

The establishment of two- or three-dimensional control networks is the most fundamental operation in the surveying of an area of large or small extent. The concept can best be illustrated by considering the survey of a relatively small area of land as shown in Figure below:   prevent sag in …

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Feasibility studies of irrigation projects

Through investigation of the following data are required during the feasibility study of an irrigation projects. · Necessity for irrigation in the region Normally Irrigation will be a necessity if there is inadequacy of rainfall, uneven distribution of rainfall, etc. On the other hand, it will be of a paramount importance to …

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Ill-effects of Irrigation

The uses of irrigated agriculture have the following ill effects if not properly managed · Raising of water Table · Formation of marshy area · dampness of weather · loss of soil fertility · soil erosion · production of harmful gases · loss of valuable lands 1.4 System of Irrigation

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Benefit and ill effect of Irrigation

Direct Benefit of irrigation There are a number of benefits of irrigation and can be summarized as follows: · Increase in crop yield · Protection of famine · Improvement of cash crops · Elimination of mixed cropping · prosperity of farmers · source of revenue · Overall development of the …

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