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Essentials of Track Maintenance

As mentioned earlier, a well-maintained track provides the base for a safe and comfortable journey. Therefore, for a track to serve its purpose well, the followingcharacteristics are required of it. (a) The gauge should be correct or within the specified limits (b) There should be no difference in cross levels except …

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Recent Developments in Welding Techniques

The welding methods described above have been further improved in the recent past by employing new techniques and equipment. These techniques and equipment are described below in detail. Automatic welding recorder The invention of a welding recorder, for controlling the quality of welding in the flash butt welding method is a recent development. …

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Roof is the upper most portion of the building which protects the building from rain, wind and sun.Various types of roofs used may be divided broadly into three types:1. Flat roofs2. Pitched roofs3. Shells and folded plates. Flat roofs are used in plains where rainfall is less and climate is …

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Applying mortar coats on the surfaces of walls, columns, ceiling etc. to get smooth finish is termed as plastering. Mortar used for plastering may be lime mortar, cement mortar or lime-cement mortar. Lime mortar used shall have fat lime to sand ratio of 1 : 3 or 1 : 4. …

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MIXING Concrete

MIXING Concrete must be mixed so the Cement, Water, Aggregates and Admixtures blend into an even mix. Concrete is normally mixed by MACHINE. Machine mixing can be done on-site or be a Pre-Mixed concrete company. Pre-Mixed concrete is batched (proportioned) at the plant to the job requirements. Truck Mixing The …

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Proportioning and Mixing Concrete

A CONCRETE MIX is designed to produce concrete that can be easily placed at the lowest cost.The concrete must be workable and cohesive when plastic, then set and harden to give strong anddurable concrete. The mix design must consider the environment that the concrete will be in; ie exposure to …

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