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Every structure consists of two parts. (1) Foundation and (2) Super structure. The lowest artificially prepared parts of the structure which are in direct contact with the ground and which transmit the loads of the structure to the ground are known as Foundation or Substructure. The solid ground on which the foundation rest …

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Column Design

The last part of the design that was completed was the determination of the reinforcement for the columns. The columns are the most critical part of the building because the failure of a column, especially a column lower in the building, could have devastating ramifications. The failure of a column could …

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here are the three kind of settlements, occured in soil Immediate Settilement primery settilement (consolidation settlement) secondry settlement Immidiate settlement :    Immediate settlement take place during the construction or after the construction of structure. its also known a distorsion settlement. It’s computed by the elastic theory especially for cohesion …

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Foundation :    A foundation is a substructure that transmits the structure load to the earth in such a way that the soil under goes deformation called foundation. A foundation fig is given below :

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Purpose of bendup bar at top portion of footing

we provide reinforcement on footing bottom to avoid tension cracks. The load coming from columns is to be transferred on footing and it should transferred to grade slab from footing. Hence we have provide bentup bars at top. The main purposes is uniformly distribution of load.the load coming from column …

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