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T-beam Design for Shear

Next in the design process was the determination of the shear reinforcement. Without shear reinforcement the beam would have a catastrophic failure due to shear-web and flexure-shear cracks. These cracks would form due to the shear forces in the beam and cause equivalent tension stresses that would cause failure in …

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Post Tensioning

The prestress force is applied in this case by jacking steel tendons against an alreadycastconcrete member. Nearly all in situ prestressing is carried out using this method. The tendons are threaded through ducts cast into the concrete, or in some cases passoutside the concrete section. Once the tendons have been …

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Feasibility studies of irrigation projects

Through investigation of the following data are required during the feasibility study of an irrigation projects. · Necessity for irrigation in the region Normally Irrigation will be a necessity if there is inadequacy of rainfall, uneven distribution of rainfall, etc. On the other hand, it will be of a paramount importance to …

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Ill-effects of Irrigation

The uses of irrigated agriculture have the following ill effects if not properly managed · Raising of water Table · Formation of marshy area · dampness of weather · loss of soil fertility · soil erosion · production of harmful gases · loss of valuable lands 1.4 System of Irrigation

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Benefit and ill effect of Irrigation

Direct Benefit of irrigation There are a number of benefits of irrigation and can be summarized as follows: · Increase in crop yield · Protection of famine · Improvement of cash crops · Elimination of mixed cropping · prosperity of farmers · source of revenue · Overall development of the …

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Necessity of Irrigation

For the growth of plant/crops: adequate quantity and quality of water required in the root zone of the plant. However, in actual condition during the whole period of plant growth /partly there exists inadequacy of water to full fill the crop water requirements. Thus, the following factors govern the necessity of irrigation: a) …

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