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Types of Doors

Various types of doors are in use which may be classified on the basis of arrangement of shutters,method of constructions, principles of working operations and materials used. Commonly used doorsare briefly explained below: 1. Battened and Ledged Doors:Battens are 100 mm to 150 mm wide and 20 mm thick woodenboards. …

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ROOF

Roof is the upper most portion of the building which protects the building from rain, wind and sun.Various types of roofs used may be divided broadly into three types:1. Flat roofs2. Pitched roofs3. Shells and folded plates. Flat roofs are used in plains where rainfall is less and climate is …

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FLOORING

Purpose of flooring is to get a good hard, level and beautiful surface for living. The floors directlyresting on the ground are known as ground floors while the floors of each storey are known as upperfloors. Ground FloorApart from giving good finished surface, these floors should have good damp resistance. …

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PLASTERING

Applying mortar coats on the surfaces of walls, columns, ceiling etc. to get smooth finish is termed as plastering. Mortar used for plastering may be lime mortar, cement mortar or lime-cement mortar. Lime mortar used shall have fat lime to sand ratio of 1 : 3 or 1 : 4. …

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Brick Masonry Over Stone Masonry

Points to be Observed in Supervising Brick Masonry ConstructionsThe following points should be observed in the construction of brick masonry: 1. Use bricks of good quality with uniform colour, well burnt, with exact shape and size.2. Before using the bricks in masonry, they should be soaked in water for 2 …

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Foundation

Every structure consists of two parts. (1) Foundation and (2) Super structure. The lowest artificially prepared parts of the structure which are in direct contact with the ground and which transmit the loads of the structure to the ground are known as Foundation or Substructure. The solid ground on which the foundation rest …

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T-beam Design for Shear

Next in the design process was the determination of the shear reinforcement. Without shear reinforcement the beam would have a catastrophic failure due to shear-web and flexure-shear cracks. These cracks would form due to the shear forces in the beam and cause equivalent tension stresses that would cause failure in …

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Sills, Lintels and Chejjas

4. Sills, Lintels and Chejjas: A window frame should not be directly placed over masonry. It is placed over 50 mm to 75 mm thick plain concrete course provided over the masonry. This course is called as sill. Lintels are the R.C.C. or stone beams provided over the door and …

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